Midrash Raba: Shmot Raba 38'

(Vere, Stein Atle. ©2011. “Midrash Raba: Shmot Raba 38'”. brakha.blogspot.com.)

The passage below comes amid an ongoing discussion.

At this point, the precise wording of the Tora תורה - the five books that begin the Tanakh תנך (Hebrew Bible) - seems to imply:

Moshe (Moses of the Tora) must do something ... to make the tribes of Yisrael holy to God ... for the sake of Aharon that is to found the family of Kohanim (Priests).

(Vere, Stein Atle. ©2011. “Midrasha Raba. Shmot Raba 38”. brakha.blogspot.com.
Source of derivation: Midrash Raba - Shmot Raba 38'. Version ©1960, New York.
Online: Hebrew Books.
hebrewbooks.org/14385, 2011.)

The Rabanim (Rabbis) explore in what sense Yisrael makes this Kohen (Priest) holy, and what it is that God is doing here.

One Rabi (Rabbi) proposes how Yisrael is holy and how this protects the Kohen:

Yisrael becomes holy by means their “treaty” ברית with God, specifically the treaty of circumcision that consecrates the kinship system of Yisrael to God, and God alone. This treaty is a spiritual force - a concept that is “alongside” the Kohen - that promotes “lifes and peace”. In some sense, the presence of the communal circumcision literally prevents the Kohen from dying in the overwhelming presence of God.

Note: The understanding intrigues. Society itself is a kind of entity that has the power to make people “holy”, even to safeguard them during mystical events - existential, transcendent experiences. Moreover consecrating the society as holy to God makes the power of the society holy to God.

The consensus of the Rabanim accepts this view.

Yet even in the consensus, the Rabanim explore deeper.

An other is “saying”, is debating, there is more at work spiritually. It isnt only the consecration of Yisrael that protects the Kohen. It is the very fact this society divides into twelve that protects the Kohen. Moreover, it is the fact each of these subcultures has its own unique identity. Its own name.

It is precisely the diversity of the society of Yisrael (Israel) that makes the Kohen holy.

Note: Twelve is a compelling number. From the twelve lunar cycles per solar year, to the twelve zodiacs mapping the heavens, to the twelve tribes of Yisreli (Israeli) society, even to the horoscopes sotospeak that assign unique personalities to each of the twelve - twelve is an archetype. This archetype seems to resonate the dynamic interrelationships of a society. It includes both the strengths and the weaknesses of each of the twelve. Archeologically, what reveals the unique presence of humanity is the creation of geometric shapes. Humans have a biological impulse to organize reality numerically. The experience of 'twelve' is complex. It is difficult to contemplate twelve different concepts simultaneously. Twelve seems to 'multiply' the simpler experiences of the 'place-ness' of four - within the cosmic map of the four directions of the cosmos that are ultimately forward, backward, right, and left - with the dynamic 'unfinished-ness' of three. As abstract as twelve is, it is vivid. It is vivid enough to even make the abstraction of thirteen vivid. Where twelve evokes the dynamic interaction of society, among each other, thirteen evokes the entire society itself interacting with the unknown. On the one hand, the unknown can evoke fear and danger. On the other hand, the unknown can evoke opportunity, curiosity, discovery, unlimited potential. Ultimately, when healthy, the number thirteen represents the relationship of a society with the infinite - thus becoming an infinite society who can adapt with anything the infinite reveals. Perhaps mathematically, twelve is a minimal or optimal number for the self-sustaining dynamic equilibrium of society, but in any case, twelve seems to psychologically - probably neurologically - connote such.

So each of the twelve tribes is unique. To enter the presence of God, the Kohen must clothe himself with twelve gems, where each gem conveys the uniqueness of each tribe by a unique name.

It is the diversity of Yisraeli society that makes it possible for the Kohen to enter the infinite.

The Rabanim agree: It is the unique identity of each tribe that makes the Kohen holy.

To emphasize the necessity of unique subcultures, the Rabanim mention an ancient list that correlates the unique name of each tribe with the uniqe kind of gem that exhibits its name.

This list that the Rabanim hold up as an authority is itself remarkable. I discuss it in more detail elsewhere. It appears to be a copy of an ancient document. The document itself now appears to be lost, but fortunately its content is now part of the Rabani content, and survives.

When the Rabanim cite this document, they do so to emphasize the exact sequence of tribal names.

Without more comment, their point seems to be: What makes the tribes holy is not just the uniqueness of each tribe, but these twelve unique tribes working together as a single whole. It is the unity in diversity, where an entire tribe functions as a member of a team of tribes. Tribe by tribe, they negotiate with each other to communicate their various needs, but then to prioritize - hierarchize - the goals that they are to achieve together.

A tribe is to achieve its own tribal goals, only if they are within the framework of the wider intertribal goals, that all the tribes determine collectively by negotiation.

Shmot Raba
aka Shemot Rabba, Exodus Rabbah.

שמות רבה
(Translated by Stein-Atle Vere. ©2011. brakha.blogspot.com.)

‹There is› an other talk ‹to explicate the words in the Tora in an other way›.

«And ‹the word› ‛this’ is the talk [that you ‹Moshe› will do for them ‹of Yisrael›, to make them holy, for the Kohen, to me].»
(Shmot 29'1) (Exodus).

By which merit ‹of Yisrael› was Aharon ‹the Kohen› entering into the House of the Holinesses of the Holinesses?

Rabi Khanina his child - that belongs to Rabi Yishmael - said:

The merit of the circumcision was entering with him.

‹As it› that ‹is› said ‹in the Tanakh›:

«By ‹the word› ‛this’, Aharon will come.»
(Vayikra 16'3) (Leviticus).

This ‹is› the circumcision.

As what ‹it is› that you are saying ‹when reading out loud the Tanakh›:

«‹The word› ‛this’ ‹is› my treaty ‹of circumcision› that you ones will guard.» (Breshit 17'10) (Genesis).

And thusly it is saying:

«My treaty was alongside him ‹as› the lifes and the peace.» (Malakhi 2'5) (Malachi).

ד״א .

" וְזֶה הַדָּבָר . " (שמות כט' א . )

באי זה זכות היה אהרן נכנס לבית קדשי הקדשים ?

א״ר חנינא בנו של רבי ישמעאל :

זכות המילה היתה נכנסת עמו .

שנאמר :

" בזאת יבא אהרן . " (ויקרא טז' ג . )
זו המילה .

כמה דאת אמר :

"זאת בריתי אשר תשמרו . " (בראשית יז' י . )

וכן הוא אומר :

" בריתי היתה אתו החיים והשלום . " (מלאכי ב' ה . )

Rabi Yitskhak ‹was› saying:

The merit of the tribes was entering with him.

‹As it› that ‹is› being said:
«And ‹the word› ‛this’ ‹is› the talk that you will do for them.»

‹Per Gmatrya numerology› the count of ‹the numerical value of the letters in the word› ‛this’ ‹is› twelve.

And these are the twelve stones that were given on his heart - that belongs to Aharon. On them ‹is› the names of the tribes.

ר׳ יצחק אומר :

זכות השבטים היתה נכנסת עמו .

שנאמר : " וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם . "

מנין זה י"ב .

ואלו הן י״ב אבנים שהיו נתונות על לבו של אהרן .  ועליהם שמות השבטים .

And as this order, ‹the names on the twelve stones› are given:

וכסדר הזה היו נתונות :

Ruven (Reuben):  sdrgnyn.
Shimon (Simeon):  swmpwzyn.
Levi (Levi):  dyyknytyn.
Yhuda (Judah):  brdynyn.
Yissakhar (Issachar):  Sanpirinon.
Zvulun (Zebulon):  Ismaragdin.
Dan (Dan):  kwklyn.
Naftali (Naphtali):  'b'tys.
Gad (Gad):  hymysywn.
Asher (Asher):  krwmtysyn.
Yosef (Joseph):  pr'lwkyn.
Binyamin (Benjamin):  mrglytws.

ראובן : שדרגנין .
שמעון : שימפוזין .
לוי : דייקינתין .
יהודה : ברדינין .
יששכר : סנפרינון .
זבולון : אסמרגדין .
דן : כוחלין .
נפתלי : אבאטיס .
גד : הימיסיון .
אשר : קרומטסין .
יוסף : פראלוקין .
בנימין : מרגליטוס .

Note: In the last section above, the gem names frequently accumulate scribal variants. Example: In the image, the letters פימיסיון appear where the tradition expects the gem name הימיסיון . Thus I standardize the name forms per Jastrow per their critically attested forms. These gem names are Hebrew but obscure technical terms probably deriving from ancient lapidaries who trade in gems. Many scribes are unfamiliar with these terms, thus unable to recognize ambiguous letters or oppositely have the motive to update the tradition to introduce a clearer meaning. I transliterate most of the gem names as letters only, so they appear unclear similar to the unclarity of the Hebrew originals that the scribes copy. I will discuss the forms, origins, and meanings of these gem names elsewhere.


Stones of Heavens - In Ancient Books

Stones of Heavens - In Ancient Books

Here I list the ancient books that mention the stones of heavens by name.

I also list medieval books that preserve ancient traditions naming them.

I list the gem names in their original languages.

It is convenient to reference all of the evidence for the gem names in one place.

A reconstruction of the Khoshen, per Halakha, by R' Chaim Richman. The Temple Institute, templeinstitute.org.
Image closeup and enhanced: R' Chaim Richman. ©2011. From tour. Online: templemountjerusalem.blogspot.com.
(templemountjerusalem.blogspot.com/2010_06_01_archive.html, 2011.)

These gems are the holy stones of the twelve tribes of Yisrael.

The twelve gems bejewel the Khoshen חשן - the “Chestpouch” amulet that the Kohen Ha'Mashiakh כהן המשיח (“Priest the Anointed”) dons to enter the presence of God.

Each tribe has its own official kind of gem to represent it.

The Rabanim (Rabbis) of the book of Bamidbar Raba understand, each tribe has its own official color, and it is the color of the gem that makes that type of gem significant to the tribe.

For the Khoshen, the name of the tribe then engraves into the stone, apparently as a reverse intaglio, as a seal that can imprint the name properly on other surfaces.

The custom is to use the gem seal to emboss the wet clay around string that ties tight a container, so the clay dries to create an official seal that evidences if anyone tampers with the contents.

These twelve stones signify the official authority of each tribe.

Thru the Ages, Yisreli (Israeli) cultures continue to honor these stones.

The twelve stone seals originate during the Bronze Age. I suspect an early date. In my view, the nomadic tribal artisans carve the stones circa -1590. While still nomadic, they are familiar with the urban Mitsrayi (Egyptian) bureaucracy and technology.

The names for the gem types probably preserve the Hebrew language of the Iron Age. The Hebrew that the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) uses to identify the types of stones probably records the dialect of the later urban Tora scribes, circa -600s.

The gems vanish during the Classical Age in the destruction of the Temple in Yrushalayim (Jerusalem).

The Yisrael cultures continue to preserve and celebrate the memory of them - and the hope to restore them. These aborigines of the Land of Yisrael continue to celebrate their sacred tribal traditions, century after century after century, across thousands of years.

The stones are national heritage.

There are twelve different kinds of gems.

To specify the mineral and color of each historical gem is a puzzle.

There seems sufficient evidence to solve each identity, even definitively.

Below I strive to summarize all the ancient material that lists all twelve kinds of gems.

The information includes the Age, the language, the dialect, the century, the name of the book, the author when possible, an online link to that book, and finally the names of the twelve gem types in their original language.

A survey of the evidence suggests the identities of the gems remain more-or-less consistent, but their order can vary considerably.


Hebrew, Yrushalmit, circa -600s,
aka Jerusalemite Hebrew, Judahite Hebrew, Southern Canaanite, Biblical Hebrew.

Tanakh תנ״ך ,
aka Hebrew Bible, Jewish Bible, Mikra מקרא .

Tora תורה ,
ie “Instruction”, Law,
aka Torah, Khumash חומש , Pentateuch, Sifre Moshe, Books of Moses.

Shmot שמות ,
aka Shemot, Exodus.

(www.mechon-mamre.org/i/t/t0228.htm, 2011.)

אֹדֶם , פִּטְדָה , בָּרֶקֶת
נֹפֶךְ , סַפִּיר , יָהֲלֹם
לֶשֶׁם , שְׁבוֹ , אַחְלָמָה
תַּרְשִׁישׁ , שֹׁהַם , יָשְׁפֵה

The letters only.

אדם , פטדה , ברקת
נפך , ספיר , יהלם
לשם , שבו , אחלמה
תרשיש , שהם , ישפה


Greek, Koine, circa -200s,
Alexandria, Egypt.

aka Targum Ha'Shviim תרגום השבעים ,
aka Septuagint (Lxx), Greek Bible.

Exodos ἔξοδος,
aka Shmot, Shemot, Exodus.


σάρδιον , τοπάζιον , σμάραγδος
ἄνθραξ , σάπφειρος , ἴασπις
λιγύριον , ἀχάτης , ἀμέθυστος
χρυσόλιθος , βηρύλλιον , ὀνύχιον

The letters only.

σαρδιον , τοπαζιον , σμαραγδος
ανθραξ , σαπφειρος , ιασπις
λιγυριον , αχατης , αμεθυστος
χρυσολιθος , βηρυλλιον , ονυχιον

Greek, Koine, circa 00s.

Greek New Testament.

Apokalupsis ἀποκάλυψις,
aka Apocalypse, Revelation.

All versions agree, including Codex Vaticanus (B). There seems no scribal variants.

(www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=re%2021&version=WHNU, Westcott-Hort, 2011.)

ἴασπις , σάπφιρος , χαλκηδών , σμάραγδος , σαρδόνυξ , σάρδιον , χρυσόλιθος , βήρυλλος , τοπάζιον , χρυσόπρασος , ὑάκινθος , ἀμέθυστος

The letters only.

ιασπις , σσπφιρος , χαλκηδων , σμσραγδος , σαρδονυξ , σσρδιον , χρυσολιθος , βηρυλλος , τοπαζιον , χρυσοπρασος , υακινθος , αμεθυστος

Greek, Koine, circa 75.

Yosef Matitya יוסף מתתיה ,
aka Titus Flavia Iosephus, Josephus Flavia.

Ioudaikou Polemos Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πόλεμος,
aka Lat. De Bello Iudaico,
aka Jewish War.

Book 5 Verse 234,
aka Book 5 Chapter 5 Section 7.

(www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=J.+BJ+5.234&fromdoc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0147, 2011.)

σάρδιον , τόπαζος , σμάραγδος
ἄνθραξ , ἴασπις , σάπφειρος
ἀχάτης , ἀμέθυστος , λιγύριον
ὄνυξ , βήρυλλος , χρυσόλιθος,

Greek, Koine, circa 93.

Yosef Matitya יוסף מתתיה ,
aka Titus Flavia Iosephus, Josephus Flavia.

Ioudaike Arkhaiologia ιουδαικη αρχαιολογια,
ie “Yhudi Sayings of the Beginning”, Jewish ancient lore,
aka Lat. Antiquitates Judaicae,
aka Antiquities of the Jews.

Book 3 Verse 168,
aka Book 3 Chapter 7 Section 5.


σαρδόνυξ , τόπαζος , σμάραγδος
ἄνθραξ , ἴασπις , σάπφειρος
λίγυρος , ἀμέθυσος , ἀχάτης
χρυσόλιθος , ὄνυξ , βήρυλλος

Aramaic, Syriac, circa 100s.

Pshitta פשיטתא ,
ie “Plain” Translation,
aka Syriac Bible.

aka Shemot, Exodus.

(www.peshitta.org/pdf/ot/Exodus.pdf, 2011.)

סָמְקָן , יָרְקָן , בָּרְקָן
איזמרגזין *אִזְמַרַגְדִּין , שַׁבְזֵיז , סַבְהְלוֹם *סַבְהַלוֹם
קנקירי *קַנְכֵרִי , טְרַקְיָא *טַרְקְיָא , עֵין עִגְלָא
כְּרֻום יַמָא , בֻּורְלָא , פַּנְתֵירִי

Greek, Koine, circa 100s-200s.

Hexapla ἑξαπλά.
Parallel Hebrew-to-Greek translations, circa 200s.

Edited by
Ȯrigenės ὠριγένης,
aka Origen Adamantius,
aka Origen of Alexandria.

1 Hebrew: Masorti, aka Masoretic text.
2 Secunda: Hebrew-to-Greek transliteration.
3 Aquila עקילס , of Sinope, Pontus. circa 130. Word-for-word translation.
4 Ebionitės Summakhos συμμαχος, Symmachus. circa 200. Verse-for-verse paraphrase.
5 Septuagint. circa -200s. Circa 200s Origen marks Non-Hebrew expansions.
6 Theodotiȯn θεοδοτίων. circa 150.

aka Shmot, Shemot, Exodus.

(www.archive.org/stream/origenhexapla01unknuoft#page/130/mode/2up, 2011.)

All agree - Septuagint, Aquila, Theodotion - except Summakhos varies:

σάρδιον , τοπάζιον , σμάραγδος [Summakhos: κεραύνιος]
ἄνθραξ , σάπφειρος , ἴασπις
λιγύριον , ἀχάτης , ἀμέθυστος
χρυσόλιθος [Summakhos ὑάκινθος], βηρύλλιον , ὀνύχιον

Aramaic, Bavlit, circa 200s-300s.
aka Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.

Targum Onkelos תרגום אונקלוס ,
aka Targum Onqelos, Targum Bavli תרגום בבלי , Babylonian Targum.

Nkudot per the Masoret Ha'Temanim נקודות לפי מסורת התימנים ,
ie “vowel-points per the tradition of the Yemenites”.

aka Shemot, Exodus.

(www.mechon-mamre.org/i/t/u/up0208.htm, 2011.)

סָמְקָן , יָרְקָן , בָּרְקָן
אִזְמַרַגְדִּין , שַׁבְזֵיז , סַבְהֲלוֹם
קַנְכֵּרִי , טְרַקְיָא , עֵין עִגְלָא
כְּרוּם יַמָּא , בֻּרְלָא , פַּנְתֵּירִי

Latin, Vulgate, circa 385.

aka Versio Vulgata,
aka Vulgate Bible, Latin Bible.

Translated by Eusebios Sȯphronios Hierȯnumos, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος,
aka Lat. Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus,
aka Jerome, Hierom.

aka Apocalypse, Revelation.

(http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Revelation+21&fromdoc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0060, 2011.)

Iaspis , Sapphyrus , Carcedonius , Zmaragdus , Sardonix , Sardinus , Chrysolitus , Berillus , Topazius , Chrysoprassus , Hyacinthus , Amethistus

Compare modern standardized spelling.

(www.veritasbible.com/lvb/read/Apocalypsis_21, 2011.)

Iaspis , Sapphirus , Calcedonius , Smaragdus , Sardonyx , Sardius , Chrysolithus , Beryllus , Topazius , Chrysoprasus , Hyacinthus , Amethystus .

Latin, Vulgate circa 390.

aka Versio Vulgata,
aka Vulgate Bible, Latin Bible.

Translated by Eusebios Sȯphronios Hierȯnumos Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος,
aka Lat. Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus,
aka Saint Jerome, Saint Hierom.

aka Shmot, Shemot.

(www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Exodus+28&fromdoc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0060, 2011.)

Sardius , Topazius , Zmaragdus
Carbunculus , Sapphyrus , Iaspis
Ligyrius , Achates , Amethistus
Chrysolitus , Onychinus , Berillus

Compare modern standardized spelling.

(www.veritasbible.com/lvb/read/Exodus_28, 2011.)

Sardius , Topazius , Smaragdus
Carbunculus , Sapphirus , Iaspis
Ligurius , Achates , Amethystus
Chrysolithus , Onychinus , Beryllus


Aramaic, Syriac, circa 600s.

Pshitta פשיטתא
aka Syriac New Testament.

Glina גלינא ,
aka Apocalypse, Revelation 21'19-20.

(Seeking online link.)

ישפה , ספילא , קרכדנא , זמרגדא , סרדון־וטפרא , סרדון , כאף־דהבא , ברולא , טופנדיון , כרוספרסא , יוכנתוס , אמותסס

Aramaic, Yrushalmi, circa 600s.

Cairo Genizah Fragment Targums.

From the Gniza (burial “stash” for worn books) of Bate Kneset Ben-Ezra. Includes different Targumim, three probably dating to 600s.


Aramaic, Glilit,
aka Galilean Aramaic.

Targum Neofiti, תרגום נאופיטי .

Colophon of copy dates to 1500s, Spain, ספרד , after the expulsion of Yhudim. Content seems early, possibly even 300s. But possibly sectarian, as some content opposes Halakha. Possibly a medieval compilation.

aka Shemot, Exodus.


Hebrew, circa 1000s.

Midrash Raba שמות רבה ,
aka Midrash Rabbah.

Shmot Raba שמות רבה ,
aka Shemot Rabbah, Exodus Rabba.

Numerous scribal variants, even in these modern copies that I cite here. I standardize them per Jastrow to determine the critically attested forms.

(www.tsel.org/torah/midrashraba/titsaveh.html, 2011.)
(www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=14385&st=&pgnum=352, 2011.)
(he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%9E%D7%93%D7%A8%D7%A9_%D7%A8%D7%91%D7%94_%D7%A2%D7%9C_%D7%AA%D7%A6%D7%95%D7%94, 2011.)

שדרגנין , שימפוזין , דייקינתין , ברדינין , סנפרינון , אסמרגדין , כוחלין , אבאטיס , הימיסיון , קרומטסין , פראלוקין , מרגליטוס

Aramaic, Glilit, circa 1200s,
aka Galilean Aramaic.

Targum Yrushalmi Ktaim תרגום ירושלמי קטעים ,
aka Targum Ktaim, Fragment Targum, Fragmentary Targum.
aka Targum Yrushalmi B, Targum Yerushalmi 2.

Fragments difficult to date but includes early content associating Targum Neofiti, and possibly represents its variants. Probably medieval, probably after 1000s as its gem list seems to derive partly from Shmot Raba gem list.

aka Shemot, Exodus

(he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%AA%D7%A8%D7%92%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%A9%D7%9C%D7%9E%D7%99_(%D7%A7%D7%98%D7%A2%D7%99%D7%9D)_%D7%A2%D7%9C_%D7%A9%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%AA#.D7.A4.D7.A8.D7.A7_.D7.9B.D7.97, 2011.)

סַמְקָתָא , יַרְקָתָא , בַּרְקָתָא
כַּדְכְּדָנָא , סִמְפּוּלְיָנָא , עֵין עִיגְלָא
זוֹזוּן , בִּירְזְלִין , זְמַרְגְּדִין
כְּרוּם יַמָא , בְּדוֹלְחָא , מַרְגְּלִיתָא

Aramaic, Glilit, circa 1300s,
aka Galilean Aramaic.

Targum Yrushalmi Yonatan תרגום ירושלמי יונתן ,
aka Targum Myukhas L'Yonatan תרגום מיוחס ליונתן , Targum Psevdo-Yonatan פסבדו-יונתן , Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, Targum Yonatan Ben Uziyel תרגום יונתן בן עוזיאל .
aka Targum Yerushalayim, Jerusalem Targum, Targum Erets Yisrael תרגום ארץ ישראל , Land of Israel Targum,
aka Targum Yrushalmi A, Targum Yerushalmi 1.

Medieval origin, circa 800s-1500s, after 700s (mentions Aisha spouse of Muhamad and Fatima his child, after Islam), after 800s (alludes conquest of Constantinople קוסטנטיני קרתא חייבתא ), probably after 1100s (after Gonim and Rashi who dont refer to it).

aka Shemot, Exodus.


סִמוּקְתָּא , יַרְקְתָא ,בַּרְקְתָא
אִיזְמוֹרַד , סַפִּירִינוּן , כַּדְכוֹדֵי
קַנְכִּירִינוּן , עַרְקִין , עֵין עֵיגָל
כְּרוּם יַמָא רַבָּא , בִּירְלֵיוַות חַלָא , מַרְגְּנִיַית אַפַּנְטוּרִין


Khag Sameakh! Shavuot

Khag Sameakh! Shavuot Sameakh!

This evening is the Eve of Shavuot.

Khag חג Shavout שבועות - the “Festival” of “Weeks” - celebrates the Seven Weeks after Pesakh פסח (Passover), when God begins the Tora תורה , in the Mountain of Sinai סיני , thru the hands of Moshe (Moses) משה , during the Bronze Age.

In my view, this formative event occurs circa -1590.

Shavuot defines the moment that the Twelve Tribes of Yisrael ישראל become a “nation” אום and an “ethnicity” גוי , distinctive among the other ethnicities of West Asia. It begins the Tora, the ongoing ethical, narrative, and spiritual tradition of Yisrael.

This is the same day that Greek calls Pentėkostė (Pentecost) πεντηκοστη, namely Day “Fifty” after Pesakh.

This evening is a great time to “pull an all-nighter” getting together with friends to study the Tora til dawn, or read and discuss anything even remotely related to the Bible and the Rabanim (Rabbis).

It is suprisingly fun.

Shavuot is one of my two favorite holidays ever. The other is Pesakh.

Yes, Yom Kipur is important too, but these two holidays are fun - and deep. Plus. One day all humanity will be overflowing with compassion, and without sin. Perhaps we wont need Yom Kipur anymore? But we will always have Tora. Even in infinity.

Eat lots of “cool” refreshing “milk” foods. These physicalize Compassion חסד . Did you know icecream and cheesecake are healthy for your higher self? Tonight they are!

Here is a solid article about the role of Shvuot in modern Yisreli (Israeli) society.

It sets a good mood to appreciate the Khag.

Khag sameakh חג שמח ! “A joyous festival”! Happy holiday!

See Also
• (David Newman. ©2011. “Religious Pluralism on Shavuot”. The Jerusalem Post.
http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Columnists/Article.aspx?id=223967, 2011.)